Stuff and Things!
Aţána Verbs

Ok. I did a thing about Nisi verbs, and a thing about stuff related to Aţána’s verbs, but y’all know absolutely nothing about Aţána’s verbs. It seems like an oversight. 

So, the most interesting thing about Aţána’s verbs is that they have two different conjugation schemes; two different infinitives, two past tenses, two present tenses, and two future tenses. Basically, they differentiate perfective/imperfective forms. 

Since the person/number things aren’t that fabulously interesting, I’m only doing the infinitives and the 1s/1p form of the verb so that you can get a look at how it might work. The “dictionary form” is the imperfective infinitive. 

Example verb: adaţ

Adaţ = to give [imperfect infinitive]

Adá = I give/I am giving [1s present imperfect]

Adáļa = we give/we are giving [1p present imperfect]

Adéx = I gave/I was giving [1s past imperfect]

Adéşi = we gave/we were giving* [1p past imperfect]

Adába = I will give/I will be giving [1s future imperfect]

Adalú = to have given [perfect infinitive]

Adú = I have given [1s perfect]

Adúhé = we have given [1p perfect]

Adup = I had given [1s past perfect]

Adupó = we had given [1p past perfect]

Aduó = I will have given [1s future perfect]

Adúhó = we will have given [1p future perfect]

There are a handful of moods as well, mostly formed by adding different postpositions to one stem or the other. That is very nearly enough for a post on its own though. 

More on Estuga

Estuga is one of the eastern tribal languages in my conworld. It’s the one with the hella complicated system of noun-classes… which, of course, means tons of affixes having to do with agreement. 

The verbs, adjectives, and nouns all agree all the time. In a grammatical sense, that makes for a rather nice lack of ambiguity. It would allow for a fairly free word order, too, despite the total lack of any kind of case marking. But then, the Ratuga like plain old Subject-Verb-Object, so it’s even LESS ambiguous. 

Example: 

The strange forest-spirit ran through the door and ate my corn! I saw it! Now, I have no food.

Aku duna amamakuka dal taba lu ačaka mofona ikem! Laloboka! Fui, tsu laeima uloi.

'aku 'duna amama'kuka daɫ 'taba lu atʃ'aka mo'fona 'ikɛm   lalo'boka   'fuɪ tsu la'eɪma 'uloɪ

[n1s]forest-spirit strange[n1] [n1s]run[past] through [n4s]door and [n1s]eat[past] [n3s]corn my[n3]! [1s]see[past]! Now, [negative] [1s]have [n7s]food. 

The bracketed things starting with [n…] are the noun class agreement markers. The word “aku” is class one, and it starts with a-. “Duna” ends with an -a, agreeing with “aku.” The verb, “amamakuka”, also begins with a-, agreeing with “aku” and “duna”! 

Adjectives only agree with class, not number, which is why the adjectival suffix doesn’t specify singular or plural [s/p]. But the verb will agree with the subjects in both class and number; if it had been “raku”, “forest-spirits”, then the verb would have been “ramamakuka”, and they both would have been glossed with [n1p] instead of [n1s]. 

This system was partially influenced by Swahili/Bantu languages in general. The nouns/agreement system especially. 

Nisi Verbs

In my conworld, there is a language called Nisi spoken by the Nisians (go figure), and by large portions of the rest of the western world. It is basically my conworld’s modern English; a trade language. It has been simplified by the massive number of non-native speakers over the centuries into something that is relatively easy to learn. One of the interesting features it kept is its verb conjugations. 

Nisi verbs conjugate through prefixes (for number and person, both subject and object) and suffixes (for tense/ mood/ aspect). The personal prefixes reveal the remnant of a tripartite morphosyntactic alignment; the prefixes tell you straightaway whether the verb is transitive or intransitive. 

It’s lost all of its case endings on nouns, so you don’t see the erg-acc thing going on there anymore. 

Nisi verb prefixes: 

            Object     Subject

1st          za-         la-

2nd         zo-         lo-

3rd         ze-          le-

If there is a plural subject or object, simply add the affix -i before the appropriate prefix. 

Example: galu = to like

            izelagaluI like them

            zalagaluI like myself

More Aţána

Behold! More conlang. This is the language spoken by the ágenas, those eastern dudes. The glosses are a little odd, but I promise they’re easier to read this way. They are for me, anyways. 

"If I had any books, I would give them to you, but I do not. I used to have books. I gave them to a friend."

Hin rókiņņí yexá bán, són adá mek, kai ye yexá. Rókiņņí yexéx dúh. Dovón adéx.

If book[accusative plural] have[1s present imperfect] [subjunctive], 2s[dative] give[1s present imperfect] [conditional], but [negative] have[1s present imperfect]. Book[accusative plural] have[1s past imperfect] [habitual]. Friend[dative] give[1s past imperfect].

"I would love to see the Sikaf Palace, and examine its beautiful fountains and gardens. Do you know any Sikaf who might show it to us?"

Loiná bán golaţ Árkolm Sikáfisa, ya bulubus ya hánus jahebeņņa golaţ. Sikáfeh danan elawó meón dem évábwa bán?

Love[1s present imperfect] [subjunctive] see[infinitive] palace[accusative] Sikaf[genitive plural], and fountain[accusative plural] and beautiful[accusative plural] garden[accusative plural] see[infinitive]. Sikaf[partitive] know[2s present imperfect] which[ergative plural] 1p[dative] 3s[accusative] show[3p future imperfect] [subjunctive]?

As always, feel free to ask me any old thing about this…  or any old thing about any old other thing. Just send something to my ask box

Which Language Do You Like?

So, I’ve posted stuff in several languages from my conworld. Do you guys want to know more about any of them in particular? Which one? What do you want to know?

Alternatively, another question about my conworld? 

What other people think of, I don’t :P this sort of thing helps me fill in gaps

Ok. This is a religious reference in my conworld, basically a listing of the eight virtues and the eight sins. This is in Si Wanú. It’s ergative-absolutive, tonal, and has these awkward but kind of hilarious nasal releases, e.g. “kngáhá”. The accent means a high tone. No accent means low tone. 
What it says: 
Nge bu kngáháSébo bu séboháFaá bu báláaBegó bu béKe bu loóDeé bu deéháHé bu kiFidí bu fidíháSínu fu tanu káa dana kolónu debí tée, ba yáatáa debí rakoí. 
What is means: 
Loyalty, not dishonestyCourage, not cowardiceHumility, not greedTranquility, not rageModesty, not lustPurity, not impurityDetermination, not slothFaith, not heresyThese are the Virtues that all men should love, and the Sins they should fear. 
Sorry the image is so low quality, I’ll try to get a better one up if I have time/don’t forget

Ok. This is a religious reference in my conworld, basically a listing of the eight virtues and the eight sins. This is in Si Wanú. It’s ergative-absolutive, tonal, and has these awkward but kind of hilarious nasal releases, e.g. “kngáhá”. The accent means a high tone. No accent means low tone. 

What it says: 

Nge bu kngáhá
Sébo bu sébohá
Faá bu báláa
Begó bu bé
Ke bu loó
Deé bu deéhá
Hé bu ki
Fidí bu fidíhá
Sínu fu tanu káa dana kolónu debí tée, ba yáatáa debí rakoí. 

What is means: 

Loyalty, not dishonesty
Courage, not cowardice
Humility, not greed
Tranquility, not rage
Modesty, not lust
Purity, not impurity
Determination, not sloth
Faith, not heresy
These are the Virtues that all men should love, and the Sins they should fear. 

Sorry the image is so low quality, I’ll try to get a better one up if I have time/don’t forget

Comparison Between [n/a]’s Languages

Ok. I haven’t got a single name for the species that speaks these languages; I’ve been referring to them by the names of their individual tribes. They’re not human; more on that later. This is a small sampling of the four most commonly spoken languages, those of the four dominant tribes (there are a bunch more, but they’re not politically independent). 

My parents are standing in the door to watch as I leave.

Estuga: Raland ika rabibi zon bu taba lobo ibli labilim.

Kambuŋä: Sa ŋa tï zü an tsa mu’in ‘übu faka zü an hilüm.

Mahade: Eazoi landi nigu yadug bu ravang ea fa.

Sikaf: Inlef yel zoznon si veiyal filik hib haradh ha. 

Estuga is an odd one, with nine different classes of nouns organized by semantic category (people, animals, plants, man-made items, liquids, verbal nouns, objects, diminutives, and language), and a fairly simple set of verbal inflections. 

Kambuŋä is an analytic language; its six vowels are pretty much its only interesting feature other than its articles, which are ALL OVER. Mainly because that’s the only way to determine number. Verbs are actually a string of particles defining tense, mood, aspect, etc. followed by the stem. 

Mahade is pretty simple, although its plurals (and duals) are a tad quirky. Especially once you throw in the possessive forms of all of those. It also has a couple of clicks, none of which show up in the example, by coincidence. 

Sikaf is most based on triconsonantal roots. Most of the nouns are strongly related to a verb in some way. It is related to a language to the southeast, called Amabz, spoken by the Mabazi. The grammars of said languages are radically different though; most of the similarities are found in the noninflected roots. 

Each tribe is very different in terms of its language, culture, and even climate. The Sikaf live on a series of islands shared with the Ágenas, the Kambuŋä live on a chunk of land carved out of an older Empire in the east, the Mahade live in the southern part of the continent, and the Estuga live on the western coast. 

Borrowed Words

Since Nisi and Si Wanú have such different phonologies, I thought it might be neat to put something up about the words that have been borrowed from one language to the other. These all started out in Si Wanú, and ended up in Nisi. 

Meaning = Si Wanú/Nisi

to jump = tnahá/tena

happiness = ngú/nuyu

thought = hini/kini*

fish sauce = éfé/efi

prophet = háno/kano

lengthy/winding = pmayá/maya

Laiko** = La Ékho/Laiko

strength = guú/gu

to choose = kífé/kifei

truth = si/si

cane, staff = sábú/saibo

kindness = daráa/darai

*the Nisian borrowing can’t be pluralized-its meaning has narrowed down to refer only to the abstract concept of thought, rather than an actual particular notion. It’s more like “consciousness”

**I’ve been using the Nisi names for countries and regions, where applicable-it keeps my maps simpler. Otherwise I’d have to write down the name in every language… and then I wouldn’t be able to see my maps beneath all the text. Laiko is a corruption of La Ékho, meaning “Great Nation” in Si Wanú. 

The acute accent on the left-side words marks the high tone. Si Wanú has four of them, low, high, rising, and falling. 

Place of Origin

I suppose I should tell you a bit about the languages I keep putting up here, rather than just translating random snippets of things. 

Nisi is a trade language spoken by a group of people in the central portion of Arol, the western continent. It’s a pretty simple language phonologically and grammatically, and it has tons of words borrowed from both the Melki language and Atabu, a tribal language from farther north, and Si Wanú, the language to the south. There aren’t many Bu’u-chi words, despite the fact that it is pretty near the Nisian states. 

Aţána is about as far from Nisi as you can get, in terms of both distance and form. It has ten cases and six declensions, and a full set of person/number/tense inflections on the verbs. It also has two infinitives (perfect/imperfect). Phonologically, it has a couple of interesting features-namely retroflex consonants and contrastive long/short vowels. The speakers exist on a sort of accent-spectrum. The southernmost speakers live in the temperate areas of the eastern continent, and they tend to have the “standard” accent. The further north you go, the most likely they are to voice their retroflex stops, and turn their short vowels into schwas. The native speakers are not humans-they don’t look like them, or think like them, so even if you learn Aţána, it might be a tad difficult to communicate complicated concepts. 

Even though Aţána is my favorite, Nisi is way, WAY easier to learn. It’s easy because it is literally all over the place, and there are so many non-native speakers  that over time the complex or difficult structures have fallen out of use, even among the Nisians.